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九十五条论纲
来源: | 作者:pmof8655b | 发布时间: 2018-08-21 | 50777 次浏览 | 分享到:
路德关于赎罪票效能的辩论(九十五条)
      为爱护与阐扬真理起见,下列命题将在文学和神学硕士及常任讲师路德马丁神甫主持之下,在威登堡举行讨论。凡不能到会和我们口头辩论的,请以通讯方式参加。奉主耶稣基督的圣名。阿门。
( 1 )当我们的主耶稣基督说『你们应当悔改』的时候,他是说信徒一生应当悔改。
( 2 )这句话不是指着告解礼,即神甫所执行的认罪和补罪说的。
( 3 )这句话不是仅仅指内心的悔改而言,因为内心的悔改若不产生肉体外表各种的刻苦,便是虚空的。
( 4 )所以罪恶的惩罚是与自恨同长久,因为这才是真正内心的悔改,而一直继续到我们进入天国。
( 5 )教皇除凭自己的权柄或凭教条所科的惩罚以外,既无意也无权免除任何惩罚。
( 6 )教皇不能赦免任何罪债,而只能宣布并肯定罪债已经得了上帝的赦免。那留下归他审判的,他当然可以赦免。他若越过此雷池,罪债便仍然存在。
( 7 )上帝赦免人的罪债,未有不使那人在他的代表神甫面前凡事自卑的。
( 8 )惩罚教条仅是加于活人身上,对临死者不应有所惩罚。
( 9 )所以圣灵借着教皇用宽仁对待我们,使他在教会中总将死亡和必要定为例外。
(10)神甫将教条,所定补赎给临死者留到炼狱,乃是无知邪恶的。
(11)将教条所定的惩罚变为炼狱中的惩罚,很显然是仇敌在主教们睡觉的时候所撒的一种稗子。
(12)从前实施教条,所定的惩罚,并不是在宣赦之后,而是在宣赦之前,作为真正痛悔的考验。
(13)临死者因死亡就免除了一切惩罚,他们向教条的法规是已经死了,不再受它们的约束。
(14)临死者心灵的健康若不完全,那即是说,他的爱心若不完全,他便必大有恐惧,而且爱心越小,恐惧就越大。
(15)单是这恐惧(且不说其它一切)就足以成为炼狱的惩罚,因其与绝望的恐惧相距不远。
(16)地狱,炼狱,和天堂之间的区别,似乎是与绝望,将绝望,和确信之间的区别相同的。
(17)灵魂在炼狱里恐惧越减少,爱心便越增加,这似乎是确实的。
(18)我们由理智或圣经似乎都无法证明,这种灵魂不能建立功德,或增加他们的爱心。
(19)虽然我们对他们的福祉也许很有把握,但是似乎也无法证明他们自己都有这种把握。
(20)因此教皇所谓全部免除一切惩罚,意思并不是指免除一切惩罚,而只是指免除他自己所科处的惩罚。
(21)所以那些宣讲赎罪票者,说教皇的赎罪票能使人免除各种惩罚,而且得救,乃是犯了错误。
(22)因对他对炼狱里的灵魂,并不能免除那按照教条应当在今生受的惩罚。
(23)如果有甚么人以得免除一切惩罚,那么只有最完全的人,即最少数的人,才能得以免除一切惩罚。
(24)所以大多数的人,难免是被这不分皂白和夸张的、免除惩罚的应许所欺骗。
(25)对于炼狱,教皇在全教会有多少权柄,主教和神甫在他们的主教区和教区也有多少权柄。
(26)若是教皇不用钥匙权(他没有此权)而用代求,来免除炼狱中灵魂的罪,他便行得好。
(27)那些说钱币一叮当落入钱筒,灵魂就超脱炼狱的人,是在传人的捏造。
(28)很显然,当钱币投入钱柜中“叮当”作响的时候,增加的只是利心和贪欲心,至于代祷是否有效,完全只能以上帝的意志为转移。
(29)从圣瑟威立努(St. Severinus)和圣巴斯噶(St. Paschal)的传奇来看,炼狱里的灵魂是否都愿被赎出来,是没有人知道的。
(30)无人能确知自己的痛悔是诚实的;更无人能确知自己得了完全的赦免。
(31)诚实买赎罪票的人,是与诚实忏悔的人一样很希罕。
(32)那些因持有赎罪票而自信得了救的人,将和他们的师傅永远一同被定罪。
(33)那些说教皇的赎罪票,是上帝使人与自己和好的无价恩赐的人,是我们应当特别警防的。
(34)因为赎罪票的恩赐,只及于人在告解圣礼中所加的惩罚。
(35)那些说为求获得救赎或赎罪票并不需要痛悔的人,是在传与基督教不符的道理。
(36)每一个基督教徒,只要感觉到自己真诚悔罪,也同样可以得到赦罪或全部免罚。
(37)任何活着或死了的真基督徒,即令没有赎罪票,也都分享基督和教会的一切恩惠,这些恩惠是上帝所赐的。
(38)然而教皇的赦免是不可蔑视的,因为正如我所说的,它宣布上帝的赦免。
(39)最有学问的神学家也很难一面宣讲赎罪票的好处,又一面宣讲真心痛悔的必要。
(40)真实的痛悔寻找并爱慕补赎;滥发赎罪票,却使人疏忽并厌恶补赎,或至少使人有这种倾向。
(41)教皇的赎罪票宜小心加以宣讲,免得人们误解,以为它们比其它爱的行为更为可取。
(42)基督徒须知,教皇并无意将购买赎罪票一事与慈善的行为相比。
(43)基督徒须知,赒济穷人,或贷款给缺乏的人,比购买赎罪票好得多。
(44)因为爱的行为使爱心增长,也使一个人变好些,但赎罪票不能使人变好些,仅能使人避免惩罚。
(45)基督徒须知,人若看见弟兄困苦,不予援助,反用他的钱购买赎罪票,他所得的,并不是教皇的赦免,而是上帝的忿怒。
(46)基督徒须知,他们除非有很多的余款,就应该把钱留作家庭必需的开支,决不可浪费在购赎罪票上。
(47)基督徒须知,他们购买赎罪票,乃是出于自择,而不是出于命令。
(48)基督徒须知,教皇颁发赎罪票,渴望(因他更需要)他们为他的虔诚祈祷,甚于他们所带来的金钱。
(49)基督徒须知,他们若不信靠赎罪票,赎罪票便是有用的,但他们若因赎罪票而丧失了对上帝的敬畏心,赎罪票便是最有害的。
(50)基督徒须知,教皇若知道那些宣讲赎罪票者的榨取,他是宁愿让圣彼得堂化为灰烬,而不愿用他羊群的皮,肉,和骨去从事建筑的。
(51)基督徒须知,教皇宁愿(照他的责任)把他自己的钱赐给许多被骗购买赎罪票的穷人,即令把圣彼得堂拍卖,也在所不惜。
(52)靠赎罪票得救,乃是虚空的,即令教皇的代表,甚或教皇本身,用灵魂来作担保,也是如此。
(53)那些为求宣讲赎罪票而叫其它教堂不得宣讲上帝道之人,乃是基督和教皇的敌人。
(54)在同一次讲道中,若讲赎罪票比讲上帝的道花相等或更长的时间,便是亏负了上帝的道。
(55)教皇的意思必然是:如果为庆祝颁发赎罪票这件最小的事,要鸣一个钟,举行简单的游行和仪式,那么为宣讲福音这件最大的事,就应鸣一百个钟,举行一百个游行和仪式。
(56)教皇颁发赎罪票所凭借的教会宝藏,在基督的子民中间,既未充分加指定,也未被认识。
(57)显然至少它们不是世上的宝藏,因为这许多赎罪票贩子不会散发而只会积攒世上的宝藏。
(58)它们也不是基督和圣徒的功德,因为这种功德,虽没有教皇相助,也使人内心得恩典,并将肉体钉在十字架上,使它死灭。
(59)圣劳伦斯(St. Lawrence)说,教会的穷人便是教会的宝藏,但他如此说,乃是用当时的说法。
(60)我们很可以说,那由基督的功德所赐给教会的钥匙,便是那宝藏。
(61)因为显然要免除惩罚和那留给教皇审问的案件,只要有教皇的权柄便够。
(62)教会真宝藏乃是上帝荣耀和恩典的神圣福音。
(63)但这宝藏自然是最令人恨恶的,因为它使在前的成为在后的。
(64)反之,赎罪票的宝藏自然是最讨人喜欢的,因为它使在后的成为在前的。
(65)所以福音的宝藏是他们从前用以获得富人的网。
(66)赎罪票的宝藏是他们现在用以获得人的财富的网。
(67)赎罪票,照宣讲者所说的,是最大的恩典;其实所谓『最大』,不过是指它们为最大的牟利工具。
(68)实则它们若与上帝的恩典和人对十字架的虔敬相比,就微不足道了。
(69)主教和神甫必须礼恭必敬地接纳教皇赎罪票的代理人。
(70)但是他们更必须运用耳目,好叫代理人不至于宣讲自己的幻梦,而不宣讲教皇的使命。
(71)若有人否认教皇赎罪票的效力,他应该受咒诅。
(72)但那反对赎罪票贩子的胡乱宣讲的人,乃是有福的。
(73)教皇对那些用图谋破坏赎罪票交易的人加以威胁,乃是适当的。
(74)但他对那些藉赎罪票为口实图谋破坏神圣之爱和真理的人,更要加以威胁。
(75)把教皇的赎罪票看得这么有效,甚至认为它们能赦免一个(假定那不可能的事)玷辱了圣母的人,这简直是疯狂的看法。
(76)反之,我们认为教皇的赎罪票,对最小之罪的罪债也不能除去。
(77)若说,纵使圣彼得现在是教皇,他也不能赐人更大的恩惠,这便是诽谤了圣彼得和教皇。
(78)反之,我们说,现在的教皇或任何教皇都有更大的恩惠,即福音,德行,和医病的恩赐等等,如哥林多前书十二章所写的。
(79)说那,饰以教皇徽号的十字架,是与基督的十字架同样有效,这是亵渎。
(80)那容许这种说法在民间传播的主教,神甫,和神学家,是必得向上帝交帐的。
(81)这种对赎罪劵的荒谬宣传,使得那些纵有学问的人,对于大家对教皇的尊敬,也确实感到困难;对于俗人的怀疑和非难更难以回答。
(82)他们要问:教皇若为得钱以建立一个教堂的小理由而救赎无数的灵魂,他何不为神圣的爱和灵魂的痛苦的大理由而使炼狱空虚呢?
(83)既然为得赎者祈祷是错误的,那么为甚么还继续给死者举行安灵弥撒呢?教皇又为甚么不退还或准许收回为他们所设立的基金呢?
(84)他们为得钱的缘故,就让一个不虔敬并作他们的仇敌的人,把一个作上帝之友的虔敬灵魂从炼狱里买出来,却不为纯洁之爱的缘故,因鉴于那虔敬和可爱的灵魂本身的所受痛苦而将他赎出来,这是上帝和教皇所定甚么样的虔敬呢?
(85)惩罚教条既因久不用而失效,人为何还要用钱买赎罪票来免除这种教条所定的惩罚,彷佛这种教条还是十足有效呢?
(86)教皇的财富今日远超过最富有者的财富,他为建筑一个圣彼得堂,为何不用自己的钱,而要用贫穷信徒的钱呢?
(87)教皇对那些因完全痛悔而有权得全赦的人,有甚么可赦免的呢?
(88)如果教皇把现在每天只作一次的作一百次,即把这些赦免和特赦颁给每个信徒,那么教会所得的福岂有比这更大的呢?
(89)如果教皇现在颁发赎罪票,是为拯救灵魂,而不是为得钱,那么以前所颁发的赎罪票既是同样有效,他为甚么把它们搁置呢?
(90)对平信徒的这些论点和疑问仅用教皇权来压服,而不用理智来解答,乃是使教会和教皇受敌人耻笑,并使基督徒不愉快。
(91)所以赎罪票若是按照教皇的意旨和精神宣讲的,那么这一切疑问便都要迎刃而解,而且根本就不会发生。
(92)因此那些向基督徒说:『平安,平安』,实则没有平安的先知滚开去罢!
(93)那些向基督徒说:『十字架,十字架』,而自己不背十字架的先知,永别了!
(94)基督徒应当听劝,努力跟从他们的领袖基督,经历痛苦,死亡,和地狱。
(95)所以他们进入天堂,要靠经历许多艰难,而不靠人平安的保证。


拉丁原文
"Disputatio pro Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum."
aliter dictum "95 Theses"
  by Martin Luther
  Amore et studio elucidande veritatis hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge, Presidente R. P. Martino Lutther, Artium et S. Theologie Magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore Ordinario. Quare petit, ut qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare agant id literis absentes. In nomine domini nostri Hiesu Christi. Amen.
  1. Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo `Penitentiam agite &c.' omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit.
  2. Quod verbum de penitentia sacramentali (id est confessionis et satisfactionis, que sacerdotum ministerio celebratur) non potest intelligi.
  3. Non tamen solam intendit interiorem, immo interior nulla est, nisi foris operetur varias carnis mortificationes.
  4. Manet itaque pena, donec manet odium sui (id est penitentia vera intus), scilicet usque ad introitum regni celorum.
  5. Papa non vult nec potest ullas penas remittere preter eas, quas arbitrio vel suo vel canonum imposuit.
  6. Papa non potest remittere ullam culpam nisi declarando, et approbando remissam a deo Aut certe remittendo casus reservatos sibi, quibus contemptis culpa prorsus remaneret.
  7. Nulli prorus remittit deus culpam, quin simul eum subiiciat humiliatum in omnibus sacerdoti suo vicario.
  8. Canones penitentiales solum viventibus sunt impositi nihilque morituris secundum eosdem debet imponi.
  9. Inde bene nobis facit spiritus sanctus in papa excipiendo in suis decretis semper articulum mortis et necessitatis.
  10. Indocte et male faciunt sacerdotes ii, qui morituris penitentias canonicas in purgatorium reservant.
  11. Zizania illa de mutanda pena Canonica in penam purgatorii videntur certe dormientibus episcopis seminata.
  12. Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis.
  13. Morituri per mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem.
  14. Imperfecta sanitas seu charitas morituri necessario secum fert magnum timorem, tantoque maiorem, quanto minor fuerit ipsa.
  15. Hic timor et horror satis est se solo (ut alia taceam) facere penam purgatorii, cum sit proximus desperationis horrori.
  16. Videntur infernus, purgaturium, celum differre, sicut desperatio, prope desperatio, securitas differunt.
  17. Necessarium videtur animabus in purgatorio sicut minni horrorem ita augeri charitatem.
  18. Nec probatum videtur ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis, quod sint extra statum meriti seu augende charitatis.
  19. Nec hoc probatum esse videtur, quod sint de sua beatitudine certe et secure, saltem omnes, licet nos certissimi simus.
  20. Igitur papa per remissionem plenariam omnium penarum non simpliciter omnium intelligit, sed a seipso tantummodo impositarum.
  21. Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari.
  22. Quin nullam remittit animabus in purgatorio, quam in hac vita debuissent secundum Canones solvere.
  23. Si remissio ulla omnium omnino penarum potest alicui dari, certum est eam non nisi perfectissimis, i.e. paucissimis, dari.
  24. Falli ob id necesse est maiorem partem populi per indifferentem illam et magnificam pene solute promissionem.
  25. Qualem potestatem habet papa in purgatorium generaliter, talem habet quilibet Episcopus et Curatus in sua diocesi et parochia specialiter.
  26. Optime facit papa, quod non potestate clavis (quam nullam habet) sed per modum suffragii dat animabus remissionem.
  27. Hominem predicant, qui statim ut iactus nummus in cistam tinnierit evolare dicunt animam.
  28. Certum est, nummo in cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei solius.
  29. Quis scit, si omnes anime in purgatorio velint redimi, sicut de s. Severino et Paschali factum narratur.
  30. Nullus securus est de veritate sue contritionis, multominus de consecutione plenarie remissionis.
  31. Quam rarus est vere penitens, tam rarus est vere indulgentias redimens, i. e. rarissimus.
  32. Damnabuntur ineternum cum suis magistris, qui per literas veniarum securos sese credunt de sua salute.
  33. Cavendi sunt nimis, qui dicunt venias illas Pape donum esse illud dei inestimabile, quo reconciliatur homo deo.
  34. Gratie enim ille veniales tantum respiciunt penas satisfactionis sacramentalis ab homine constitutas.
  35. Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis animas vel confessionalia non sit necessaria contritio.
  36. Quilibet christianus vere compunctus habet remissionem plenariam a pena et culpa etiam sine literis veniarum sibi debitam.
  37. Quilibet versus christianus, sive vivus sive mortuus, habet participationem omnium bonorum Christi et Ecclesie etiam sine literis veniarum a deo sibi datam.
  38. Remissio tamen et participatio Pape nullo modo est contemnenda, quia (ut dixi) est declaratio remissionis divine.
  39. Difficillimum est etiam doctissimis Theologis simul extollere veniarum largitatem et contritionis veritatem coram populo.
  40. Contritionis veritas penas querit et amat, Veniarum autem largitas relaxat et odisse facit, saltem occasione.
  41. Caute sunt venie apostolice predicande, ne populus false intelligat eas preferri ceteris bonis operibus charitatis.
  42. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Pape mens non est, redemptionem veniarum ulla ex parte comparandam esse operibus misericordie.
  43. Docendi sunt christiani, quod dans pauperi aut mutuans egenti melius facit quam si venias redimereet.
  44. Quia per opus charitatis crescit charitas et fit homo melior, sed per venias non fit melior sed tantummodo a pena liberior.
  45. Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem dei sibi vendicat.
  46. Docendi sunt christiani, quod nisi superfluis abundent necessaria tenentur domui sue retinere et nequaquam propter venias effundere.
  47. Docendi sunt christiani, quod redemptio veniarum est libera, non precepta.
  48. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut magis eget ita magis optat in veniis dandis pro se devotam orationem quam promptam pecuniam.
  49. Docendi sunt christiani, quod venie Pape sunt utiles, si non in cas confidant, Sed nocentissime, si timorem dei per eas amittant.
  50. Docendi sunt christiani, quod si Papa nosset exactiones venialium predicatorum, mallet Basilicam s. Petri in cineres ire quam edificari cute, carne et ossibus ovium suarum.
  51. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut debet ita vellet, etiam vendita (si opus sit) Basilicam s. Petri, de suis pecuniis dare illis, a quorum plurimis quidam concionatores veniarum pecuniam eliciunt.
  52. Vana est fiducia salutis per literas veniarum, etiam si Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro illis impigneraret.
  53. Hostes Christi et Pape sunt ii, qui propter venias predicandas verbum dei in aliis ecclesiis penitus silere iubent.
  54. Iniuria fit verbo dei, dum in eodem sermone equale vel longius tempus impenditur veniis quam illi.
  55. Mens Pape necessario est, quod, si venie (quod minimum est) una campana, unis pompis et ceremoniis celebrantur, Euangelium (quod maximum est) centum campanis, centum pompis, centum ceremoniis predicetur.
  56. Thesauri ecclesie, unde Pape dat indulgentias, neque satis nominati sunt neque cogniti apud populum Christi.
  57. Temporales certe non esse patet, quod non tam facile eos profundunt, sed tantummodo colligunt multi concionatorum.
  58. Nec sunt merita Christi et sanctorum, quia hec semper sine Papa operantur gratiam hominis interioris et crucem, mortem infernumque exterioris.
  59. Thesauros ecclesie s. Laurentius dixit esse pauperes ecclesie, sed locutus est usu vocabuli suo tempore.
  60. Sine temeritate dicimus claves ecclesie (merito Christi donatas) esse thesaurum istum.
  61. Clarum est enim, quod ad remissionem penarum et casuum sola sufficit potestas Pape.
  62. Verus thesaurus ecclesie est sacrosanctum euangelium glorie et gratie dei.
  63. Hic autem est merito odiosissimus, quia ex primis facit novissimos.
  64. Thesaurus autem indulgentiarum merito est gratissimus, quia ex novissimis facit primos.
  65. Igitur thesauri Euangelici rhetia sunt, quibus olim piscabantur viros divitiarum.
  66. Thesauri indulgentiarum rhetia sunt, quibus nunc piscantur divitias virorum.
  67. Indulgentie, quas concionatores vociferantur maximas gratias, intelliguntur vere tales quoad questum promovendum.
  68. Sunt tamen re vera minime ad gratiam dei et crucis pietatem comparate.
  69. Tenentur Episcopi et Curati veniarum apostolicarum Commissarios cum omni reverentia admittere.
  70. Sed magis tenentur omnibus oculis intendere, omnibus auribus advertere, ne pro commissione Pape sua illi somnia predicent.
  71. Contra veniarum apostolicarum veritatem qui loquitur, sit ille anathema et maledictus.
  72. Qui vero, contra libidinem ac licentiam verborum Concionatoris veniarum curam agit, sit ille benedictus.
  73. Sicut Papa iuste fulminat eos, qui in fraudem negocii veniarum quacunque arte machinantur,
  74. Multomagnis fulminare intendit eos, qui per veniarum pretextum in fraudem sancte charitatis et veritatis machinantur,
  75. Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint hominem, etiam si quis per impossibile dei genitricem violasset, Est insanire.
  76. Dicimus contra, quod venie papales nec minimum venialium peccatorum tollere possint quo ad culpam.
  77. Quod dicitur, nec si s. Petrus modo Papa esset maiores gratias donare posset, est blasphemia in sanctum Petrum et Papam.
  78. Dicimus contra, quod etiam iste et quilibet papa maiores habet, scilicet Euangelium, virtutes, gratias, curationum &c. ut 1. Co. XII.
  79. Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci Christi equivalere, blasphemia est.
  80. Rationem reddent Episcopi, Curati et Theologi, Qui tales sermones in populum licere sinunt.
  81. Facit hec licentiosa veniarum predicatio, ut nec reverentiam Pape facile sit etiam doctis viris redimere a calumniis aut certe argutis questionibus laicorm.
  82. Scilicet. Cur Papa non evacuat purgatorium propter sanctissimam charitatem et summam animarum necessitatem ut causam omnium iustissimam, Si infinitas animas redimit propter pecuniam funestissimam ad structuram Basilice ut causam levissimam?
  83. Item. Cur permanent exequie et anniversaria defunctorum et non reddit aut recipi permittit beneficia pro illis instituta, cum iam sit iniuria pro redemptis orare?
  84. Item. Que illa nova pietas Dei et Pape, quod impio et inimico propter pecuniam concedunt animam piam et amicam dei redimere, Et tamen propter necessitatem ipsius met pie et dilecte anime non redimunt eam gratuita charitate?
  85. Item. Cur Canones penitentiales re ipsa et non usu iam diu in semet abrogati et mortui adhuc tamen pecuniis redimuntur per concessionem indulgentiarum tanquam vivacissimi?
  86. Item. Cur Papa, cuius opes hodie sunt opulentissimis Crassis crassiores, non de suis pecuniis magis quam pauperum fidelium struit unam tantummodo Basilicam sancti Petri?
  87. Item. Quid remittit aut participat Papa iis, qui per contritionem perfectam ius habent plenarie remissionis et participationis?
  88. Item. Quid adderetur ecclesie boni maioris, Si Papa, sicut semel facit, ita centies in die cuilibet fidelium has remissiones et participationes tribueret?
  89. Ex quo Papa salutem querit animarum per venias magis quam pecunias, Cur suspendit literas et venias iam olim concessas, cum sint eque efficaces?
  90. Hec scrupulosissima laicorum argumenta sola potestate compescere nec reddita ratione diluere, Est ecclesiam et Papam hostibus ridendos exponere et infelices christianos facere.
  91. Si ergo venie secundum spiritum et mentem Pape predicarentur, facile illa omnia solverentur, immo non essent.
  92. Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi `Pax pax,' et non est pax.
  93. Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi `Crux crux,' et non est crux.
  94. Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant,
  95. Ac sic magis per multas tribulationes intrare celum quam per securitatem pacis confidant.
  M.D.Xvii.



英文译文
Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter.
In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.
1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance.
2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by the priests.
3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the flesh.
4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the Canons.
6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven.
7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest.
8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to them, nothing should be imposed on the dying.
9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.
10. Ignorant and wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for purgatory.
11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept.
12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.
13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them.
14. The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear.
15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.
16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety.
17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase.
18. It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love.
19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it.
20. Therefore by "full remission of all penalties" the pope means not actually "of all," but only of those imposed by himself.
21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved;
22. Whereas he remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life.
23. If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest.
24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty.
25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish.
26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of intercession.
27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory].
28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone.
29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Severinus and Paschal.
30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission.
31. Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare.
32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon.
33. Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to Him;
34. For these "graces of pardon" concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man.
35. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessionalia.
36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon.
37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.
38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission.
39. It is most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition.
40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them].
41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to other good works of love.
42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to be compared in any way to works of mercy.
43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons;
44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty.
45. 45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God.
46. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on pardons.
47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment.
48. Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring.
49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God.
50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.
51. Christians are to be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St. Peter might have to be sold.
52. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it.
53. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others.
54. Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word.
55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.
56. The "treasures of the Church," out of which the pope. grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ.
57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them.
58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man.
59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.
60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure;
61. For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient.
62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God.
63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last.
64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.
65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for men of riches.
66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men.
67. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the "greatest graces" are known to be truly such, in so far as they promote gain.
68. Yet they are in truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross.
69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of apostolic pardons, with all reverence.
70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope.
71. He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed!
72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed!
73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons.
74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth.
75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the Mother of God -- this is madness.
76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned.
77. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope.
78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii.
79. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.
80. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render.
81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity.
82. To wit: -- "Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial."
83. Again: -- "Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?"
84. Again: -- "What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake?"
85. Again: -- "Why are the penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force?"
86. Again: -- "Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of poor believers?"
87. Again: -- "What is it that the pope remits, and what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation?"
88. Again: -- "What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations?"
89. "Since the pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy?"
90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy.
91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist.
92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Peace, peace," and there is no peace!
93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, "Cross, cross," and there is no cross!
94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell;
95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace.


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